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General Topics covered

Key Words Microscopy Training Topics

How does a microscope work and what does it do

What governs getting a good image

The importance of numerical aperature on lateral and axial resolution.

How to Köhler a microscope.

What is the effect of incorrect Köhler illumination

What do the markings on an objective mean?

Aberration – defects of lenses.

Contrast techniques

Transmitted light illumination

Reflected light illumination (Epi)

Phase contrast

Polarised light microscopy

Differential interference contrast (DIC/Normaski)

Digital Imaging

Setting the camera for the correct brightness, colour and contrast

Saving as different file types (movies etc) and batch file conversion

Image annotations

Scaling, resolutions, repeatability



Light Microscopy Basics

Basic Principles

Basic principles and function
Resolution and magnification

Conjugate planes, Köhler illumination

NA and resolution

Objective inscriptions

Aperture diaphragm
Field diaphragm
Ergonomics and maintenance

Contrast techniques

Phase contrast


Differential interference contrast
Circular polarising
Circular differential interference contrast

Extending conventional Microscopy

Large area microscopy – stitching
Large area microscopy – panoramic imaging
Optical image stacking (z stack, extended focus)
Topographical images and measurements 
Specialist applications non metallic inclusions, heated stages,
Particle measurement. grains, graphite, hardness testing, 

Stereo Microscope or Compound Microscope

Magnification ranges
Growing overlap, which is best for which type of sample
Application examples 
Depth of field considerations compared to compound
Objective working distances
Sample control 
Automation opens new possibilities.
Moving towards complete automation.
Lighting techniques LED, fibre optics, pol bright field darkfield

Using digital cameras on a microscope 

Camera types
Connecting to the microscope
Sensor / chip sizes, field of view, vignetting 
Relative camera resolutions
Aspect ratio
Pixel bit depth & sampling
Spectral range
C mount adapters
Adapter Issues
Limits of resolution 
Magnification and objective resolution
Interactive measurements
Automatic measurements
Resolution and its limits
Empty magnification
Camera resolution
Depth of field
Axial resolution
Extending microscope depth of field


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